On 9 December, the RCC without due process decreed that the 1923 Constitution of Egypt was abrogated "in the name of the people.". Graphic Organizer: Egyptian Revolution. There is a second plan to reclaim 50,000 acres in the northwest tip of the Sinai peninsula for the benefit of the Palestine refugees. The timeline of an Arab revolution. Incidentally, in one step to help remedy the social stratification which has split Egyptian society into hostile camps, titles and honors--princes, pashas and beys, marks of a privileged class--were abolished. Official fear of a Western-sponsored counter-revolution, domestic religious extremism, potential communist infiltration, and the conflict with Israel were all cited as reasons compelling severe and longstanding restrictions on political opposition, and the prohibition of a multi-party system. It is this procrastination that gives the Communists the chance to take over what usually start as genuinely patriotic movements. Pending construction of the High Dam, we have drafted short-range plans for the expansion of cultivated land. As they approached the el-Qoba Bridge, an artillery unit led by Youssef Seddik met with them before he led his battalion to take control the Military General Headquarters to arrest the royalist army chief of staff, Hussein Sirri Amer and all the other commanders who were present in the building. In addition to bolstering the Industrial Bank, the government has adopted other measures to help private industry, such as the improvement of internal communications, temporary protective tariffs, reduced customs on imported machinery, and the encouragement of foreign capital. The Egyptian worker is also getting a new deal. The political environment in Egypt was known in all the declarations of constitutional and constitutions interim that followed the 1952 revolution up to the permanent constitution in 1971, as amended, and until the 25th of January revolution, as a mixed system (in form or constitutional). It will cost $516,000,000. The objection has often been made that if the Arabs were to receive military assistance they would immediately attack Israel. Ali Maher was asked to form a civilian government. This system of foreign rule was built on the corrupt monarchy and the feudal system that had been instituted under Mohammed Ali, who reigned from 1805 to 1849. March witnessed clashes within the RCC, symbolised in the attempt, ultimately successful, to oust Naguib. While the Free Officers planned to overthrow the monarchy on 2–3 August, they decided to make their move earlier after their official leader, Muhammad Naguib, gained knowledge, leaked from the Egyptian cabinet on 19 July, that King Farouk acquired a list of the dissenting officers and was set to arrest them. The project would be undertaken through the joint efforts of the Egyptian Government and the United States Point Four program. The revolutionary government was able to overcome this chronic foreign trade deficit, and to show a profit of $43,000,000 by the first quarter of 1954, and of $61,000,000 by the second quarter of the same year. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014. Hence the cleavage between the ruling family and the enslaved masses, and the seeds of hatred that germinated and flowered throughout the reigns of his successors, Ibrahim, Ismail and Tewfik. Egypt Revolution: 18 days of people power ... 2011, to demand the end of President Hosni Mubarak's nearly 30 years in power. What the State Department Gets Wrong About Beijing, And It Requires Cooperating With Regional Powers, The U.S. Military Needs a Plan to Compete Without the Advantages of the Past, Get in-depth analysis delivered right to your inbox, From the Egypt's present agricultural land totals 6,000,000 acres. I assure the Egyptian people that the entire army today has become capable of operating in the national interest and under the rule of the constitution apart from any interests of its own. There would not be any Communist infiltration in any part of the Middle East and Africa if the United States could develop a courageous policy--and the only morally correct one--of supporting those who are anxious to get rid of foreign domination and exploitation. In 1882 naval units of the British Fleet bombarded Alexandria, Egypt's second capital and the biggest port of the Mediterranean, and landed troops. However, during this period, the Egyptian government also borrowed heavily from European countries for internal improvements; when the price of cotton fell, Egypt had already borrowed money to the point of bankruptcy in 1876. Trade policies were based on the principle that politics should be kept separate from economics. A coup d'état had originally been planned for 5 August, but the coup leaders advanced their plans to the night of 22 July, after General Naguib—one of the Free Officers—informed that group on 19 July that the Egyptian Royal Army high command had a list of their names. Egypt - Egypt - The revolution and the Republic: At mid-century Egypt was ripe for revolution. It condemns intolerance, terrorism, prejudice and organized hatred. Egypt's reputation among the peoples of the world has been debased as a result of your excesses in these areas to the extent that traitors and bribe-takers find protection beneath your shadow in addition to security, excessive wealth, and many extravagances at the expense of the hungry and impoverished people. The thirst of party leaders after power was also utilized by King Farouk to realize personal ambitions at the expense of the vital interests of the people. The largest plant in our blueprints is a fertilizer factory, to be worked on the Aswan Dam hydroelectric power which will be available in 1958. Starting with the Collective Security Pact as the basis for our own defense, we can consider--once it has been adequately implemented--coördinating our defense plans with those of any other nation interested in defense against aggression in this area. [dubious – discuss] This was followed by signaling a major land redistribution programme among peasant farmers which gained most of the seized land. At first they claimed they were in Egypt to protect the foreigners against the Egyptians, although the foreigners never asked for their protection; then they claimed they had to stay to protect the Christian and Jewish minorities against the Moslems, overlooking the fact that the Christians and the Jews had joined the Moslems in demanding the withdrawal of the British forces from Egypt. It would be unwise for the United States to take that view of nationalist activities, led by sincere patriots whose only desire is to see their nations free from foreign domination. From an array of contenders for power, it was a movement of military conspirators—the Free Officers led by Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser—that toppled the monarchy in a coup on July 23, 1952. It also inspired the toppling of existing pro-Western monarchies and governments in the region and the continent. The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 was effectively a coup d’état by a group of army officers known as the “Free Officers.”. Its teachings form the core of true democracy. The High Dam will reclaim 2,000,000 more and will supply water for the permanent rice plantation of 700,000 acres, and convert another 700,000 acres of one-crop land in Upper Egypt to perennial irrigation. But while these operated in the Canal Zone, there came the shamelessly contrived burning of Cairo on January 26, 1952. Egypt suffered a foreign trade deficit of $225,000,000 in 1952, and a total deficit in the ten years before the revolution of more than 1.5 billion dollars. In 1936, a treaty provided for the ending of British occupation, but it also required a permanent agreement between Egypt and Britain--a provision very likely to mean permanent occupation. Built about four miles south of Aswan Dam, 200 miles north of the Sudan border, the giant dam will be constructed not as a conventional stone wall but a pyramidal granite rock-field almost half-a-kilometer thick. In December 2010, protests in Tunisia sparked by the death of Mohamed Bouazizi turned into a revolution.The death of Khaled Saeed in June 2010 became a similar rallying point for activists in Egypt. Egyptians feel that a great injustice was committed against the Arabs generally, and especially against the million or more Palestinian Arabs who are now refugees. Always there were the two great objectives--to check despotism and make the nation itself the source of powers, and to put an end to foreign intervention and the usurpation of Egypt's resources. In this sense it is not only humanitarian but elastic and tolerant. All of these were factors that had a large influence on the army. Should anyone behave in such ways, he will be dealt with forcefully in a manner such as has not been seen before and his deeds will meet immediately the reward for treason. You manifested this during and after the Palestine War in the corrupt arms scandals and your open interference in the courts to try to falsify the facts of the case, thus shaking faith in justice. In January, the Muslim Brotherhood was outlawed. A "Revolutionary Tribunal" consisting of RCC members Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Sadat and Hassan Ibrahim, was set up to try politicians of the ancien régime. We want to lift these restrictions as soon as we feel the people are no longer in danger from such groups--and the sooner that time comes the better so far as we are concerned. However, there is much more to it than that. In 1950 there were 618,860 owners of parcels of land from one to five acres in size, an increase of only some 47,000. There is no reason why the 70,000,000 Arabs could not build up an army of several divisions for the defense of their lands. An elections law was passed on 3 March granting women the right to vote for the first time in Egyptian history. Debate broke out among the Free Officers concerning the fate of the deposed king. It was a long and painful search. The revolution was faced with immediate threats from Western imperial powers, particularly the United Kingdom, which had occupied Egypt since 1882, and France, both of whom were wary of rising nationalist sentiment in territories under their control throughout the Arab world, and Africa. How Did State and Society Differ Pro and Post the Egyptian Revolution in 1952? It is expected that the agrarian reform program will also switch a major part of the nation's capital from agriculture to industry, as big landowners are given compensation for their estates in the form of bonds which can be invested in industrial projects. The revolution seeks to bridge the gulf between social classes and to foster the spirit of altruism which marks a cultivated individual and a cohesive group. The revolution is alternately known as the “23 July Revolution.”. The anniversary of the Revolution is commemorated on Revolution Day, an annual public holiday in Egypt, on 23 July. It reëstablished the Industrial Bank, the main objectives of which are to aid emerging industries, consolidate those already existing and provide technical aid. Overwhelmed and unsettled, Eastern minds lost almost all national values, yet could not absorb Western values. In the wake of the 1919 revolution, and after two years of stalled negotiations, the British abolished martial law and granted Egypt unilateral nominal independence from colonial rule in February of 1922. Gamal Abdel Nasser, 35, was appointed deputy premier and minister of the interior. The nations of the Arab League believe that they can unite in a force that contributes to the cause of world peace. Subsequently, Free Officer Movement cells initiated riots in Cairo which led to arsons. Throughout the period national struggle assumed different forms, some pacific and some revolutionary. About $200,000,000 is allocated in the current budget for projects for social reform. Naguib ordered the captain of Farouk's yacht, al-Mahrusa, not to sail without orders from the army. The second biggest plant is an iron and steel works, already being constructed at Helwan, near Cairo, by the German firm of Demag. Two years later, on 18 June 1956, Nasser raised the Egyptian flag over the Canal Zone, announcing the complete evacuation of British troops. Social welfare units are being established in the rural areas, each unit to serve 15,000 inhabitants, and to include a school, a health center and a social-agricultural extension section. Now plainly terrified, Farouk abandoned Montaza, and moved to Ras Al-Teen Palace on the waterfront. Over a century ago, Egypt, with less than half her present population, had an army of more than 200,000. They appointed a commander who is either ignorant or corrupt. These restrictions on political activity would remain in place until the presidency of Anwar Sadat from 1970 onwards, during which many of the policies of the revolution were scaled back or reversed. This monopolistic system was extended to commerce and industry (with the entire destruction of free enterprise as a result), and the money thus collected was not used for the national welfare but spent lavishly on wars serving Mohammed Ali's own ambition. Chartered monopolies dominated the Egyptian market. Our effort is to provide all rural districts with social services in the next five years; 200 centers were opened in 1954. Fifty Egyptian police officers were killed and one hundred were wounded. [6], Meanwhile, the chairman of the Free Officers, Gamal Abdel Nasser, contacted the Muslim Brotherhood and the communist Democratic Movement for National Liberation to assure their support. When World War II came they said they could not go because the Suez Canal was an important base, and after World War II they explained that they had to stay to safeguard the interests of the free world. As we plan for the future, we have also had to clean out the corrupt past, especially the subversive or reactionary groups which have spread their tentacles wide in the land. The Egyptians had to pay the cost of occupation and open the country to British companies and foreign agencies. The greatest internal enemies of the people are the Communists who serve foreign rulers, the Moslem Brotherhood which still seeks rule by assassination in an era that has outlived such practices, and the old-time politicians who would like to reëstablish exploitation. It began to develop the potential resources of the country, setting up the national Board of Production charged with planning national productivity and outlining the new policy of large-scale industrialization. The revolution was initially aimed at overthrowing King Faruq. It did not. The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 lasted just a few days, beginning on July 23rd and ending July 28th, as the military leaders were successful in... See full answer below. The next day, January 26, 1952 ("Black Saturday"), what many Egyptians call "the second revolution" broke out (the first being the Egyptian Revolution of 1919). Angered at being left out of the political and economic spoils and seeing a continuation of secularism and modernity within the Free Officers Movement such as had existed under the King, the Muslim Brotherhood organized its street elements. We still lack development, but industrialization will increase our capabilities. The nation had sworn allegiance to Mohammed Ali in the attempt to overthrow the rule of the Mamelukes, but Mohammed Ali and his descendants unfortunately forfeited this loyalty, embarking on despotic enterprises and usurping the rights of the people. A closing word about Egypt's foreign relations: despite all reports to the contrary by enemies of the Arab world, the Arab League is a reality. In point of fact they intended to stay indefinitely, and did so. [7], At 7:30 a.m., the Egyptian populace heard broadcast station issue the first communiqué of the revolution in the name of Gen. Naguib to the Egyptian people that stated the justification for the revolution or the "Blessed Movement". The Egyptian revolution of 2011, also known as the 25 January Revolution (Arabic: ثورة 25 يناير ‎; Thawrat khamsa wa-ʿišrūn yanāyir), started on 25 January 2011 and spread across Egypt.The date was set by various youth groups to coincide with the annual Egyptian "Police holiday" as a statement against increasing police brutality during the last few years of Mubarak's presidency. The Egyptian peasant is no longer the virtual serf of big landowners, but his own master. He had taken for himself an absolute monopoly of land and resources, treated farmers as slaves, and created a new feudal class formed by his own family and his clique composed mainly of aliens. This does not mean that it is the end of democracy in Egypt. Any revolution which fails to realize its basic objectives inevitably lays the seeds for a subsequent uprising. Other concessions have been given in the Eastern Desert and the Sinai Peninsula. 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